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Eczema and gut health: what's the connection?

Eczema, also known as atopic dermatitis, is a common skin condition that affects millions of people worldwide. Skin becomes dry, itchy, and inflamed, causing discomfort. While the exact cause of eczema is not fully understood, recent studies have shown that there is a connection between gut health and eczema.

The Gut-Skin Axis

The gut and skin are interconnected through a newly discovered pathway called the gut-skin axis. This axis refers to the opposite direction of communication between the gut and the skin. Gut bacteria, for example, may affect the severity and development of eczema.

Gut Bacteria

The gut microbiome refers to the trillions of bacteria that reside in our digestive system. These bacteria play a crucial role in maintaining gut health and balance. Studies have shown that individuals with eczema tend to have altered gut bacteria compared to individuals without eczema. This imbalance in gut bacteria can lead to changes in the immune system and contribute to the development or severity of eczema symptoms.

Intestinal Permeability

The term intestinal permeability refers to the control over material passing from inside the gastrointestinal tract to the rest of the body through the lining of the gut wall.

The gut barrier, consisting of the intestinal lining and immune cells, serves as a protective barrier between the gut and the external environment. In individuals with eczema, there is increased intestinal permeability, also known as leaky gut. This means that substances that should normally be kept in the digestive system can leak into the bloodstream, triggering an immune response in the skin.


Cytokines are small proteins produced by immune cells that act as messengers between cells. Certain cytokines, such as interleukin-4 and interleukin-13, are implicated in both gut inflammation and skin inflammation. Studies have shown that individuals with eczema tend to have higher levels of these cytokines in their blood, indicating a potential connection between gut health and eczema.

Dietary Factors and Gut Health

The diet plays a crucial role in maintaining gut health. Individuals with eczema may benefit from making certain dietary changes to support their gut health. These may include:

- Avoiding processed foods, sugary drinks, and excessive alcohol consumption.

- Consuming a diverse and fiber-rich diet, including fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and lean proteins.

- Limiting the intake of certain foods that may trigger or exacerbate eczema symptoms, such as dairy, gluten, and certain spices.


In conclusion, there is a growing body of research that suggests a connection between gut health and eczema. The gut-skin axis highlights the interaction between gut factors and skin health, and dietary factors can influence gut health. It has been shown that improving gut health can have a positive impact on the skin condition of individuals with eczema and their overall quality of life.

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